Hello everyone. In this module, we will be discussing two topics. One, what is the Linear Construction. The second is introduction to the line of the balance as a scheduling mechanism or tool for the type of construction that has linear properties. So what is a Linear Construction? It's the construction site that have linear properties or what we call it sometimes a repetitive construction sections in your project. For example, I highlighted a highway construction where in the highway, you can divide the entire length of the highway into sections. And each section, the same exact activities will be done, one by one on each section. So that, what we mean by a repetitive or a linear construction, and we will go through an example on how to develop another scheduling mechanism or tool for this type of construction. But first, before we move forward, I will ask you the follow-up question. Based on this brief introduction and example I just gave as a highway construction as a linear or repetitive construction. Think about another type of construction project that would be meeting the requirement of be considered as a Linear Construction. What do you think that would be? To answer this question, I'm sharing other types of projects here could be a Linear Construction such as the railroad. Which is also you can be dividing it into sections and each section in a very long rail you would perform the same exact processes or construction activities. In this case, for all these types of construction for the majority of the project, because sometimes you might stop for something unique like station or something like that. Pipeline networks exactly the same, Earth moving and placing the tunnel or tunneling in general, water pipes. Also sometimes housing projects, will have the same, especially if you have the exact same house, you're building for a community. So these are examples of a linear construction or what we call a repetitive a repetitive construction. So, let's go through an example here, prosperities in some Linear Construction projects actually work as I mentioned in sections. Each section, in the project, requires that a set of work processes or activities to be completed in a particular sequence before the section is completed. So each section has exactly the same activities as I just explained. For example, let's go further. For a road construction project, you would follow the same exact processes. On each section in the road, you are working on such as one perform a rough grade construction process, then finishing grade of that section of the road. Then place the aggregate base after that, you might have to fully complete of a four or five. Followed by another process of another nine, eight, or ten inch concrete layer to be placed. Finalizing, that specific section in the road with assembling and building the curbs of that specific section. That being said, let's take an example of any repetitive construction projects. Let's draw on the board here and example of a linear project, so it could be let's say look like that. Where here you have the start of the project, here you have the end of the project. And sometimes, as I mentioned the section I mean you divide the road into sections. We say 1, 2, 3, all the way let's say 12 and 13. So, this is just like a simple example of a road that you are building for a client. And before we move forward, each section of the road, you divide it, you have to perform, actually, the same processes. Now in each section of the project we want to perform the exact same processes, as explained in the road example. Let's show based on this like a bar chart of these processes on a 13-sections project, which could be this road, or water, or a tunnel. And let's list out quickly on the bar chart of such a project. So from what we expend on the road, that would be a bar chart of let's say we have how many processes. One, two, three, four, five processes from A to E. Each processes or consumption activity, we're going to perform on the role I just drew. On each of the thirteen sections, so if you notice, let's say process A or activity A for the route or the linear project each section has to perform all the processes. So that's why we divide each process or activity into 13 sections referring to each section on the road. And we highlight when we going to start each process and we noticed here that we leave some time before we start the following process. So as we need an area ready, by process A to perform process B, and so on. So C will not start until it says here one month, so as we have enough room available that A been done, B been done. And then C starts on top after you finish A and B and so on for all the sections. Now let's draw what we call the production curves or lines for these processes of course in approximation here. So we can have something let's say like this. And these are process A, B, C, D, and E. This is what we call, The production, And the X axis is the time. So it says here, If the time in weeks, This is approximation, That would be week 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. 16 weeks to finish the project. Just an approximation to understand now the fundamental or the concepts behind it. Process A starts when the project starts, finishes approximately in week number one, two, three, four, five, number six. And then B, C, D, E, the same thing. Now, what we have here is what we call the production curve or production line of each process, how much I'm producing per unit for each of the processes we have here. And if you notice here, what I did is I put distance between the beginning points of each process. We have a distance here, a distance here, a distance here. And these distances we refer to as lag, for example process B and C here, we have one, two, three, weeks lag between them. That means that our three weeks of work are built up on process B before C process is started similar to what I show you in bar chart. Each one of these curves are called production curve and that production curve help in two things. One, indicate the rate of production on each process in the project or each activity in the project. And second, it established the project status, what I mean by that, this example, We draw. A line here. And then I ask you, what is the project status at week 8? In this case, I would look here and say in week 8, I'm saying that process A and process B will be done. Actually, a matter of fact I would be just finishing with the process B and process C we are two weeks starting in that process and we have one week to start project D. And that's, it might be because, as I mentioned about the lag, we need around maybe three weeks until we have enough through or units per use from process C that can allow process B to start. Lets move forward to explain why does important to understand that production rate of each of these curves or on each of these lines. So based on what I drew on the production curves, or the production lines. And as I mentioned, the approximation between what I drew and what I show you on the bar chart. Just to understand the fundamentals behind the main objective of what that production curves are. Moreover, it is very important then what I mentioned is to balance the production rates between the processes which is ensuring that slopes of the production curves are roughly parallel. And do not intersect, it's very important not to intersect the production curves together. If they are not parallel the production curve then will intersect and cause a problem. Let's explain how in a graph here. So if we have here, in the Y-axis the production, and the X-axis we have the time. So it says that, let's say we have production going like this and another production rate going like this. This is let's say A and this is B, we notice at T1 there is an intersection between the 2 process. If that happens the slope of B is so steep that will cause intersection with process A at time T1 which will lead to what? To shutdown of the process B until there are more units available from process A to us. So that will be on hold until we have another production curve here and then process B will start again here. And actually it might intersect again here, so this is a continuation of A. The time here, I refer to or I put here, is the ideal time that B will be shut down until it has more room from A available to continue B. So before I put conclusion here, in addition, in addition to that stoppage of process B at time T1. Let me change the color here a little bit. This might also cause a ripple effect cause a shut down of following the processes at the project. So if we have another process C going back here, then would also be shut down here and will be shifted and then continue again somewhere here. Because activity C we wait also for activity B to provide more units available in the projects all the sections, to start with the following activities. So there will be a ripple effect of causing shut downs of following the processes in the project. So the goal here is to balance between all of that production cares but we fail to then ask question lines. And that will be our introduction to the next topic in our module which is the line of balance.