Welcome back to our course on protecting business innovations via patents. In this module we're going to be talking about some advanced topics related to patents. Let's look at where we've been and where we are. We've covered in Module one, an introduction and overview of patents. On module 2, what's the process of getting a patent? How long does it take? how much does it cost? What do we need to do to get a patent? Module three, much more detail on what do we need to do to get a patent; including the requirements and the application. The detailed components of a patent application. So, the meat of getting a patent. We're now done with the meat and we're on to the dessert. This is kind of the fun stuff and interesting stuff, that didn't fit into other modules before. But we've left to the last module of this session, where we're going to talk about some interesting case examples and some advanced topics that are important but are beyond just the basics of, so you want a patent, what you have to do? How do you apply for it? What are the details required? Now, we're going to talk about some more complicated issues related to that. Specifically, some of the topics or actually all of the topics that we're going to cover in this module include, Software patents and Business Process Patents. They're not the same but there is some overlap between them and their legal in the U.S. They're not legal in other countries. We'll talk about why that is, why does America allow them and what does that mean for companies that are trying to get a software patent or a business process patent outside the U.S.? Is there any way possibly to do it? So, we'll cover that. And that's an interesting issue and it's big money. We'll talk about even bigger money, when we talk about Patenting Life. The patenting medicines and this is some of the biggest R and D, biggest patent, biggest money, biggest lawsuits. This matters, and it matters in the food we eat, it matters and the medicine that we take to keep us alive, It matters in bacteria that do useful things, like clean up an oil spill, or many other useful products that are biotech. We're also going to talk about in a module, Patent Trolls. Why are they so annoying? How could they potentially be useful in some occasions? Why does the U.S. allow them? Why do other countries feel like the U.S. law is encouraging trolls and should actually be changed to make that more difficult? But we'll talk about trolls, the good, the bad, the ugly. We then talked about Smart Phone Wars. These are battles of giants, Apple, Samsung, Motorola, Google, Qualcomm- all fighting over patents. Biggest battle between Samsung and Apple resulting in a billion dollar judgment. Why? What are the issues? What happened and why was it overturned? Why did the Supreme Court say, No, you don't? And what are the problems or challenges? Why do other countries disagree with the U.S. ruling? Why are the rulings different from one country to another? Why did Samsung win in Germany and Italy and Apple win in America? And so, there are some interesting battles that went on related to these smartphone wars. But that's giants. We'll then start to talk about companies that many of you might relate too better, small businesses, entrepreneurial businesses, young businesses, medium size businesses in some case. We'll look at three different case examples of companies using patents as part of their business activities, trying to protect their patents even when they're small family owned company, where they mortgaged their home in order to get the business started and now they've got a patent lawsuit on their hands, it's going to cost them millions of dollars. How do you deal with that? How do you make that even conceivable that you could go forward. And so, how do you fight against giants or deal with giants when you're a small company and you're fighting the battles for patents and for your survival? And so, we'll look at some case examples on that. What companies have done and give you some ideas. As to what you might be able to do as an entrepreneur and choices trade offs you might be able to make. So, we look forward to having you in our sessions in this final module of our course on protecting business innovation via patents. Thank you very much. I look forward to having you in the next session. Thank you.