Hello. I am Dr. Katie Mohrman. I am Dr. Jacob McWilliams. This video discusses important terms that we'll be using to talk about gender and sexuality. It's very important to understand and know how to use current language and terminology when talking to and about queer and transgender people. Language that describes gender and sexual diversity is changing particularly quickly. So in order to be up-to-date, it's important for us to notice and pay attention to how this language is evolving. We also recommend that you observe how language is used and it's changing in use in your specific context. A lot of the terminology we'll introduce in this module is connected to our specific context. We live and work in Denver, Colorado, a large city in the United States. People living and working in other areas of the United States and in other places around the world likely will be able to identify language and terminology differences in their own locales. A positive way to demonstrate that you respect and value a person or a community is by respecting and valuing the language they use to describe themselves. This video is intended as an introduction to key terms related to gender and sexuality, and specifically to LGBTQ+ plus or queer and transgender identities. If you are interested in learning more, you can check out this free e-book by Ash Mardell, The GayBCs of LGBT+. Throughout this course, we'll use two terms repeatedly. The first is the acronym LGBTQ+. This term stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning. The plus sign at the end is intended to recognize that there are other identities that aren't named in the acronym, but fall under the LGBTQ umbrella. Some additional identities that fall under the LGBTQ plus umbrella are pansexual, asexual, gender fluid, genderqueer, and so forth. We'll also use the term queer and transgender people as a descriptive label for the wide range of people whose gender identities and sexualities have led to prejudice, discrimination and marginalization. We'll define the term transgender later in this video, but we want to spend some time here defining the term queer. In the late 19th century and the early and mid 20th century, the word queer was used as a derogatory term for people who didn't conform to gender and sexual norms. Beginning in the 1980s, gay communities began reclaiming the word. These communities embraced it as a positive description for their sexuality, gender identity, or gender expression. Today the word queer is used in multiple ways. Sometimes it's used to describe radical, political, or philosophical commitments, sometimes to describe academic approaches to critique or analysis and sometimes to describe people who identify with or engage in non-normative sexual and gender practices. Many people who identify as members of the LGBTQ+ community are uncomfortable with efforts to reclaim the word queer. They might remember the word queer being used as a slur. They may believe that the word's negative connotations can hurt or alienate some LGBTQ+ people. We've chosen to use the word queer throughout this course for two reasons. First, we think it's more inclusive than LGBTQ+ acronym because it encompasses more identities than the LGBTQ+ acronym does. Second, this course is designed to align with the principles of queer theory. Queer theory is an approach to cultural studies that invites people to investigate and challenge assumptions about gender, sexuality, and identity. Queer theory rejects the assumption that there is a, quote, "normal gender identity, a normal sexual orientation, or a normal way to express gender and sexuality". We'll talk more about queer theory later in this course. For now, if you want to learn more about the word queer, you can read more about its history and current uses in a recent article in the magazine cosmopolitan. The main terms we will be reviewing in this module are; sex, gender, gender identity, and sexual identity or sexual orientation. We're going to start with sex and to explain how sex is different from gender. The term sex is used to talk about a person's biological, anatomical and genetic traits related to reproduction. A person's sex assigned at birth, usually by a healthcare professional who examines the baby's genitals and uses that to decide whether a baby is male or female. Over time a person will develop secondary sex characteristics. Secondary sex characteristics develop as a result of estrogen and testosterone. Estrogen is often described as a female sex hormone. Estrogen is one hormone that helps with development of breast tissue, widening of the pelvis and hips and menstruation for people who have uteruses. Testosterone is sometimes described as a male sex hormone. Testosterone leads to increased facial hair and body hair, development of an Adam's apple and a deeper voice. It's important to remember that all people have a combination of both estrogen and testosterone. So it isn't accurate to refer to them as either female or male hormones. One reason that there's so much variation in people's secondary sex characteristics is that all people have some testosterone and some estrogen in their bodies. It's true. Even though many people describe testosterone as a male hormone, everybody has some present in their body. The same is true of estrogen, which is often described as a female hormone, but which is also present in all people's bodies. A person's testosterone level is one factor determining how much course darker hair a person will grow on their face, but it's not the only factor. Even a person with relatively low testosterone levels may have inherited a tendency to grow facial hair. In contrast, a person with relatively high testosterone levels may not be able to grow much facial hair at all. Another reason the practice of dividing people into two sexes is complicated is that there are a lot of people in the world who are intersex. The term intersex is used to describe somebody who's anatomy or genetic material doesn't fall clearly into either female or male sex categories. Some people are born with clear intersex indicators and some intersex conditions become visible later in a person's life. Many intersex people will never learn that they're intersex unless they get genetic testing because the condition doesn't always show up in physical characteristics. Intersex conditions are a lot more common than people think. Researchers believe that as many as 1 in 1,500 babies or about 1.7 percent are born with intersex traits. That makes being intersex about as common as having naturally red hair. Experts estimate that we have about 140 million redheads in the world and about the same number of intersex people. We don't expect redheads to identify as either having brunette hair or blonde hair because their hair is obviously neither brunette nor blonde. In the same way, systems that only allow people to be identified as either male or female are too limiting for many intersex people. This is because neither label adequately describes them.