In this video, we will take a closer look at contemporary global challenges involving risk. Together, we will discuss what these challenges are, and how they impact societies. Let's start with the main question. What are global challenges? There are many global challenges that impact societies all over the world. Think of climate change, cybersecurity or infectious diseases. Some of these challenges revolve around risk, because they have the potential to cause indirect or direct harm to us, or the things that we value, now or in the future. These challenges are complex, because they cannot be addressed by a single institution, organization, or individual alone. Global challenges can be distinguished in two specific ways. One, they can be global in scale, or two, they can be global in reach. First, let's take a look at global scale. A challenge is global in scale when it has a global impact. Global climate change, for example, is partly caused by the world wide use of fossil fuels. This creates changes in our natural environment, such as rising sea levels or changing weather patterns, which impact the entire globe. In addition to global in scale, a challenge can also be global in reach. A challenge is global in reach when, although occurring locally or even regionally, also affects many different parts of the world. A good example of this is civil war or conflict. While these may start in one specific country, they can have spillover effects to many other parts of the world. For example, by triggering a large stream of refugees or by drawing in neighboring countries. As our societies have become more advanced, the complexity and the impact of global challenges has increased significantly. Today, many risks are linked to technological developments, think of nuclear power plants, chemical plants, or aircrafts. And while such advancements have brought immeasurable benefits to mankind, they've also produced many new types of risks, such as nuclear meltdowns, chemical accidents or airplane disasters. What further increases the impact of modern global challenges is that in today's society many of the organizations and technologies we have developed have become increasingly interconnected and dependent on each other, think of global financial systems or critical infrastructures. In order to function properly, these systems are connected to countless other systems. As a result of this dependency, what may start as a small or inconsequential failure in one system, can have unexpected and dramatic cascading effects for others. Prominent examples of this are the recent global ransomware attacks. These attacks affected countless computers around the world, resulting in severe consequences for governments, businesses, and individuals. Combined, these developments have increased the complexity, as well as, the impact of modern, global challenges So, what have we learned? We have seen that global challenges come in many shapes and sizes. These include civil war and conflict, but also global climate change, and many others. We've also learned that these challenges can be considered global, either because of their scale or because of their reach. Lastly, we have seen how these global challenges have become increasingly challenging due to new technological advancements, as well as connections between complex societal systems. In the next videos, we will take a closer look at some of these contemporary challenges.