[MUSIC] As mentioned earlier in this course, safe work practices and procedures are created with the intention of preventing hazardous situations and accidents. General procedures have been written to cover a wide array of workplace situations, yet every possible workplace situation has not been addressed. Therefore, it is imperative employees are conscientious while recognizing possible hazards, evaluating them, and controlling them. In this module, we'll review electrical and non-electrical hazards you may encounter and how you want to handle them. On completion of this module, you'll be able to, first, recall solutions for hazards. Second, recognize symptoms for certain injuries. Third, understand how to properly treat certain injuries. There are some hazards unique to the utilities and industry sector. Therefore, special precautions and more protocols must be followed. Let's talk about some of these consequences you should be familiar with related to energy and the utilities industry. Energy and utility workers must pay special attention to electrical hazards because they work on equipment and systems that carry electrical voltage. Coming in contact with electrical voltage can cause current to flow through your body resulting in electrical shock, burns, or even serious injury or death. Examples of energy in the utility industry electric shock include bad wiring, exposed components, power lines, poor insulation, improper grounding, overload, wet conditions, faulty tools or equipment, and improper use of personal protective equipment. Electricity is one of the most common causes of fires and thermal burns in the workplace. Electrical fires are often caused by defective or improperly handled electrical equipment. Arcing, sparking, overheating, friction, static electricity, electrical current leakage faults, and other electrical hazards can cause fire and explosion. What's the first line of defense? Prevention, compliance to procedures, regular inspections, and knowledge of potential fire hazards can help prevent accidents. Five different types of fires are often referred to as A, B, C and K. An A fire, these include ordinary combustibles. Paper, wood, cloth, rubber, most plastics. B fires, these are caused by flammable liquids. Oils, gasoline, grease, solvents, lacquers. A C fire is an electrical fire. And a K fire represents fires from cooking oils in the kitchen. Because there are different types of fires there are also different types of fire extinguishers. Fire extinguishers are marked with letters and symbols that indicates the types of fires they can extinguish. It is critically important to understand the types and appropriate uses. Fires can actually grow if you use the incorrect extinguisher. If the fire requires a solution or liquid that might act as a conductor, all adjacent electrical equipment must be first de-energized. If you work in a highly flammable environment, employees need to be trained on hazards of fire and how to operate a fire extinguisher in the event of an emergency. Remember the acronym PASS, for safe fire extinguisher use. P, pull the pin. A, aim at the base of the fire. S, squeeze the handle. S, swipe from side to side. Along with working in environments that may ignite fires, utility workers may be required to work off the ground, causing another safety concern. Let's identify fall hazards and decide how to best to protect the workers. Whether conducting a hazard assessment or developing a comprehensive fall protection plan, think about fall hazards before the work begins. Employees who work poles, towers, and other elevated equipment that are supported overhead generation, transmission and distribution lines and equipment are required by OSHA to follow fall protection, precautionary measures. In addition to compliance with safe work practices and training fall protection safeguards such as personal fall protection equipment, work positioning equipment, or travel restricting equipment are necessary for employees working at sites above four feet off the ground. Employees in the energy and utility industry also face increased dangers when working with electricity. Electrical shock occurs when a person body completes the current path between two energized conductors in an electric circuit or between an energized conductor and a grounded surface or object. The severity of electrical shock depends on several factors including body resistance, circuit voltage, amount of current flowing through the body, the current path through the body, area of contact and the duration of contact. At one milliamp you'll feel a tingling sensation. Once it's more than three milliamps you'll feel a bit of shock. Note that five milliamps is the maximum harmless current. When it is greater than ten milliamps you’ll feel a continual muscle contraction. At 30 plus milliamps you’ll receive lung paralysis, more often temporarily. Greater than 50 milliamps can result in possible heart dysfunction or respiratory arrest and this is usually fatal. 100 milliamps to 4 amps you'll leave you with fibrillation and nerve damage. After going over four amps you'll have a heart paralysis and severe burn. Some of the specific types of electrical injury may include electrical shock, electrical burns, arc flash burns, an arc blast, falls and fire. Safety is your responsibility. Famous educator in the early part of the 20th century stated safety is life. Which was true in the early 20th century, and is still true today. Safety is life. Are you a safe person? You certainly can be. It's in your attitude. Practice it daily. Observation, sound judgement, and reasoning abilities prevent accidents and maintain workplace safety.