Today we'll be talking about Korean unification. We are talking about Korean unification because Korea was divided. In my personal opinion, Korean division went through the three different stages. First stage was when Korea was liberated from the Japanese colonial occupation. However, it was divided between North and South because of occupying forces. Northern part of 38 parallel was occupied by the Soviet Union, and the south of the 38 parallel was occupied in the United States, that was the beginning of the Korean unification. Foreign forces occupation of the Korean Peninsula lasted for three years. In 1948, Korea was divided and reborn into two different sovereign state. On August 15th, 1948, South Korea declared the Republic of Korea. Meanwhile, North Korea declared the establishment of Democratic Republic of Korea on September 9th, 1948 and I would argue that that was the second formal division of the Korean Peninsula. The third stage of the Korean division was initiated with North Korean invasion of South Korea in 1950. The Korean War lasted for three years from 1950 to 1953 and then since then Korean National division coincided with very high level of military confrontation and tension. And that was the beginning of a protracted inter-Korean conflict under the situation of national division. Inter-Korean relations have shown patterns of conflict incorporation. Let me give you some highlights of conflict in crisis. And obviously, 1953, North Korea invaded South Korea. That was the beginning of the Korean War that was ended with the signing of armistice agreement among, in fact, there's three parties. North Korea as sovereign states, and the United States, on behalf of the United Nation's Command, and China. Chinese Volunteer Forces. At a time, the Republic of Korea refused to sign an armistice agreement, because President Rhee Syng-man refused to sign the armistice agreement, he insisted we should continue to move on to North Korea. And liberate North Korea from communist occupation. But President Truman of the United States rejected that idea. And armistice agreement was signed even without presence of South Korea. But since then, there was a much smaller instance between North and South Korea. But major provocation by North Korea took place on January 21, 1968. North Korean commander attacked presidential mansion of South Korea on January 21, 1968. That was a really serious provocation by North Korea. That was followed by the North Korean capture of American naval ship called the Pueblo. That was done in February, therefore I would say that 1968, 69, 70 show the highest level of military tension between North and South Korea. Then it subsided. That we shall discuss later. North-South Korean natives adopted this July 4th Joint Communiqué, and with that Communique, North and South Korea entered kind of much more pacified the relationship. But on August 18th, 1976 North Korean soldiers murdered two American officers by axe in Joint Secret Area of. That really heightened tension on the Korean Peninsula. There is the popular tree around which this axe murder took place in 1976. And another significant event between North and South Korea was bombing of ROK Presidential delegation in Rangoon in, okay. North Korean terrorist attack on October 9, 1983, killed 17 members of delegation including four cabinet members. That again heightened tension between North and South Korea. That is the site of Mausoleum. Then that was followed by the bombing of KAL, Korean Airline 858, over the Anda in the Gulf near Burma. It is believed that the North Korea's covert action led to the bombing of Korean Airlines, civilian airlines on November 27th, 1987. It is another important sign of North Korean provocation. Then since 1994, first North Korean nuclear crisis began, and that was succeeded by the second nuclear crisis in 2002. Likewise, inter-Korean relations marked with sort of high military tension and clashes. Nevertheless, it did not lead to the major outbreak of conflict escalation because there was sort of a so-called cooperative endeavor between Seoul and Pyongyang to promote inter-Korean relations. The first examples of such a kind of operative behavior was manifested by July 4th joint communique between North and South Korea in 1972. It came up with a very interesting argument. The reunification will take place without reliance on or intervention by foreign nations. It will be achieved by a peaceful means. Therefore, it stated peaceful reunification of two Koreas and those two sides would take measures to stop propaganda from broadcasting against each other, stop military aggression. Prevent any military crashes. And also two sides agreed to institute various exchanges in economic, social, and cultural areas. And cooperate in holding inter-Korean Red Cross talks, and open Seoul-Pyongyang hotline and set up a North-South Korean mediation committee. And that was very important event. But as I pointed out, the murdering of American soldiers by North Korean soldiers by acts in 1976, and also arms and bombing in 1983, really undermined inter-Korean relations. Therefore there was a kind of big hatred in terms of inter-Korean cooperation but in 1991 South Korea adopted the declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. Its content says that South and North Korea shall not test, manufacture, produce, receive, possess, store, deploy, or use a nuclear weapon. South Korea abided by this declaration, but North Korea didn't do that. That become the source of major nuclear crisis on the Korean Peninsula. In 1992, North and South Korea adopted a very historic document called the basic agreement on non-aggression, reconciliation, and exchange and cooperation. This document is very, very important because it defined inter-Korean relations, not one between two sovereign states but one forged during the pursuit of national reunification. Therefore, inter-Korean relations defined as a special relationship within intranational transactions. And also, the two sides, recognized and respect each other's system, bar, subversion and intervention, open a liaison office and uphold existing armistice agreement until a peace regime is found. That's very important. It's a mutual recognition and respect of two different regimes. And also both sides agree not to engage in any kinds of subversive activities on each other. And third one, as you can see in the detail throughout the material, both sides agree to cooperate in economic and social sectors. Allow free contact, travel and postal exchange. Reunions for families separated by the Korean War and reconnect the railways and roads. And I would say the basic agreement which Helsinki Final Act of 1975, really opened the new horizon of inter-Korean exchange and cooperation. And then, year 2000, both Koreas have the first Korean summit, and adoption of June 15th Joint Declaration, we'll be discussing later. And 2003, it was the launching of Six Party Talks, to deal with North Korea nuclear problem. In 2007, there was a second Korean summit and adoption of October 3rd Joint Summit Declaration, which we'll also discuss toward the end of this class.